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Networking

Networking

Lets’ learn about networking today 

Introduction to Networking

A network connects computers, mobile phones, peripherals, and even IoT devices. Switches, routers, and wireless access points are the essential networking basics that we need to know. Through them, devices connected to your network can communicate with one another and with other networks, like the Internet. In a network, the computer is the main stakeholder that can alone work but need a network to communicate with other computers.

Why there is a need for Networking?

Networking has become an essential tool for communication. Networking is required for the following mentioned reasons;

  1. Resource Sharing

If Networking is present then the resource sharing becomes easy and efficient.  The information or the data can be stored in one computer and can be shared by other computers if needed for the work. Data security and data privacy can be applied to a single place.

  1. Reliability

Reliability is important because if by chance any data stored in one computer gets corrupted it can be used by some other computer which has the same data stored. This facility is available because of networking only.

  1. Communication

Networking has really contributed a lot more than you can ever think. Because of it, only the world is connected by a single click. All information can be accessed through networking.

  1. Cost-effective

With the use of networking, you eventually earn an economic profit of the earning. Because different software need not be purchased and installed on each and every computer. One computer can do all the work and information can be shared; networking makes that possible.

Types of Networks

In general, there are only three types of Networks. So, we must know them.

  1. LAN

Local Area Network i.e., LAN is best suitable within a building or a group of buildings. Local Area Network can spread from minimum 1m to maximum of 10 km. So, LAN is the most widely chosen form of networks.

  1. MAN

Metropolitan Area Network i.e, MAN is used by Cable TV operators for their program distribution. It is basically done with the help of cables. It is actually spread over a small span of the city.

  1. WAN

Wide Area Network i.e, WAN.  The data transmission is slower and not that effective because of error rate. It usually happens due to long distance to cover. WAN can span an entire country that’s why it is not so efficient in transmission.

Networking without Internet Is Incomplete

Yes, it is true that networking without internet is incomplete. The Internet is a network of a number of millions of computers linked to each other by various wireless and wired technologies.

All the computers on the internet communicate with each other because they follow the prescribed sets of Protocols. 

With the Internet, you can access varied features on a computer.  World Wide Web,  Email, multimedia, chats, etc. With the Internet the scope of the people access to the computer’s world has drastically increased and led to greater Interspaces’.

The Networking Technology

As we know on the internet a number of computers are connected to each other; it is possible because of a medium that transfers the data or the information.  In networking technology, we will get to know about the wired technology that is widely used. And, also about the wireless technology that is gaining immense popularity nowadays.

  1. Wired Networking Technology

In this networking type, you use cable as a medium to connect computer to computer.  Some of the wires that are used are; Twisted-pair cable, Coaxial cable, Ethernet cable and Optical Fibre.

(a) Twisted-pair cable

  • Two independently twisted wires twisted along each other.
  • Least expensive; thus economical.
  • Noise interference is low but can be used for point to point connection only.

(b) Co-axial cable

  • Cheaper than other medium and fragile in nature,
  • It is an electrical cable with an inner conductor that is surrounded by an insulating medium. And, the insulating medium is again covered with an outer conductor with a power jacket.
  • Cannot be laid down under physical constraints.
  • Insulation may degrade over time; interference of noise is present.

(c) Ethernet cable

  • Widely used in LAN.
  • Connected to Co-axial cables or Twisted –pair cables that act as a medium.
  • Network adaptor is needed to connect Ethernet cable.
  • Installation is less expensive and voice transmission is not up to the mark.

(d) Optical Fibre

  • Data transmission latest technology
  • Data travels in form of light through a glass or an optic fiber
  • Higher data transfer rates
  • It is expensive, fragile too.
  • Due to higher bandwidth, data can be carried with so much ease to longer distances; without data loss.
  1. Wireless Networking Technology

Wireless networking technology is based on transmitting signals through microwaves and radio signals. Wireless networks are slower than the wired technology because of the use of Ethernet cables. And, the signal which is being transferred is not secure. So, anyone can interfere with it and put errors. There are varied types of media that help in wireless networking. Such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc.

  1. Bluetooth

Bluetooth is a device that enables wireless communication; without wires. It is a short range and low powered device. Also, it is inexpensive and easy to use. Due to a small radio transmitter/ receiver in the device the easy transmission of data is possible.

  1. Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is a wireless technology that is more powerful and effective in the transmission of data. Wifi zone is created for the Wifi user. So, they can surf the web effectively within the hotspot range in the wifi zone. Most people in companies, personal homes are using the wi-fi technology only. 

Questions

  1. What is networking?
  2. Why there is a need for networking?
  3. Explain the types of networks. In brief.
  4. Explain how networking without internet is incomplete.
  5. What is networking technology?
  6. Explain the two types of networking technologies. In detail.
  7. Give the examples of cables used in wired networking technology.

Recap

  • Networking; the basic concept.
  • The need for networking; key points.
  • The types of networks; LAN, MAN and WAN.
  • Networking incomplete without the Internet; the reason.
  • Networking technology; the basic concept
  • Types of networking technologies
  • Cables used in wired technology and their benefits.

Quiz for Networking

Q.1

Which of the following allows a router to respond to an ARP request that is intended for a remote host?

a) Proxy ARP
b) Gateway DP
c) Reverse ARP
d) Inverse ARP

Q.2

If you use either Telnet or FTP, which is the highest layer you are using to transmit data?

a) Transport
b) Presentation
c) Session
d) Application

Q.3

What is the purpose of the PSH flag in the TCP header?

a) Typically used to indicate end of message
b) Typically used to indicate beginning of message
c) Typically used to push the message
d) Typically used to indicate stop the message

Q.4

What protocol is used to find the hardware address of a local device?

a) RARP
b) ARP
c) IP
d) ICMP

Q.5

A default Frame Relay WAN is classified as what type of physical network?

a) Point-to-point
b) Broadcast multi-access
c) Non-broadcast multi-access
d) Non-broadcast multipoint

Q.6

With which network type will OSPF establish router adjacencies but not perform the DR/BDR election process?

a) Non-broadcast multi-access
b) Broadcast multi-access
c) Backbone area 0
d) Point-to-point

Q.7

The duration of time it takes to send a message from one end of a network to the other end and back is called?

a) Full Duplex Time
b) Circle Trip Time
c) Round Trip Time
d) Data Travelling Time

Q.8

The amount of data that can be carried from one point to another in a given time period is called?

a) Scope
b) Capacity
c) Bandwidth
d) Limitation

Q.9

In which type of RAID, data is mirrored between two disks?

a) RAID 0
b) RAID 1
c) RAID 2
d) RAID 3

Q.10

What do you mean by broadcasting in Networking?

a) Addressing a packet to a particular machine
b) Addressing a packet to except a particular machine
c) Addressing a packet to some machines
d) Addressing a packet to all machines

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