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Fundamentals of Computer

Fundamentals of Computer

With respect to class 8 Fundamentals of Computer, computers are automatic electronic devices that have the ability to store, manipulate and communicate information.

Let us see the block diagram of a computer to better understand it: 

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The computer takes the input from the input unit, processes it in the CPU and then produces the output.

Input Unit with respect to class 8 Fundamentals of Computer

Input units accept the data from the outside world and convert it into computer-understandable form i.e. the binary form. For example, keyboard, mouse, microphones, etc.

Central Processing Unit/Microprocessor with respect to class 8 Fundamentals of Computer

With respect to class 8 computer lessons, CPU is called the brain of the computer. It consists of:

  1. ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit): It performs arithmetic and logical operations
  2. CU(Control Unit): It tells the ALU what to do
  3. Registers: They are the internal memory of the computer to store temporary data

Memory Unit with respect to class 8 Fundamentals of Computer

They are used to store data for later references. There are two types of memory:

  1. Primary Memory

With respect to class 8 computer lessons, primary memory is the internal memory of the computer i.e. the RAM (Random Access Memory) and the ROM (Read Only Memory). RAM is a temporary memory while ROM is a permanent memory.

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  1. Secondary Memory

With respect to class 8 computer lessons, the external memory devices used for the storage of information constitute the secondary memory. For example, hard disk, floppy disk, CD, DVD, Pen Drive, etc.

Output unit with respect to class 8 Fundamentals of Computer

It produces the output in user-understandable form. Examples of output unit are monitor, printer, speakers, plotters, etc. 

Types of Computer

Supercomputer

They are used to store and process very large amounts of information. For example, satellite images and navigation, in the defense system, etc.

Mainframe computer

They are used by government and businesses to process very large amounts of information.

Minicomputers

They are similar to mainframe computers and are used by the government and businesses to process very large amounts of information.

Personal computers

Also known as PCs, they are smaller and less powerful than others. They are used in homes, schools and small businesses.

Software with respect to class 8 Fundamentals of Computer

The software is a program or application that tells the computer what to do and how to perform a specific task. There are 2 types of software:

  1. Application software with respect to class 8 computer lessons

They are the software which works with the operating system to help the computer perform a specific type of work. For example, word processors, spreadsheets, database programs, Photoshop, etc.

  1. Operating System software with respect to class 8 computer lessons

They direct all the activities and sets all for how the hardware and the software will work together. For example, Windows, Linux, Mac, etc. are some of the operating system software.

Questions with respect to class 8 Fundamentals of Computer

  1. What are the components of the CPU?

Ans. There are three components of the CPU namely ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit), CU (Control Unit) and Registers.

  1. What is a primary memory?

Ans. Primary memory is the internal memory of the computer comprising of RAM and ROM.

  1. What is application software?

Ans. It is a program which is designed to perform a specific task as per the need of the user.

Recap with respect to class 8 Fundamentals of Computer

  • A computer is a device which is used to store, manipulate and communicate information.
  • There are four components of a computer:
    -input unit
    -CPU
    -memory
    -output unit
  • There are two types of memory:
    -Primary memory
    -Secondary memory
  • The software is a program which tells the computer how to perform a specific task. There are two types of software:
    -Application software
    -Operating System software

Quiz for Fundamentals of Computer

Q.1

In latest generation computers, the instructions are executed ?

a) Parallel only
b) Sequentially only
c) Both sequentially and parallel
d) All of above

Q.2

Who designed the first electronics computer – ENIAC ?

a) Van-Neumann
b) Joseph M. Jacquard
c) J. Presper Eckert and John W Mauchly
d) All of above

Q.3

Personal computers use a number of chips mounted on a main circuit board. What is the common name for such boards ?

a)

Microprocessor

b)

Motherboard

c)

Microcontroller

d)

None of these

Q.4

Which of the following are input devices ?

a) Keyboard
b) Mouse
c) Card reader
d) all of the above

Q.5

Which of the following is also known as brain of computer ?

a) Control unit
b) Central Processing unit
c) Arithmetic and language unit
d) Monitor

Q.6

Examples of output devices are ?

a) Screen
b) Printer
c) Speaker
d) All of these

Q.7

1 Byte = ?

a) 8 bits
b) 4 bits
c) 2 bits
d) 9 bits

Q.8

The device used to carry digital data on analogue lines is called as ?

a) Modem
b) Multiplexer
c) Modulator
d) Demodulator

Q.9

Full form of VDU is:

a)

Visual Discrete Unit

b)

Visual Display Unit

c)

Virtual Display Unit

d)

None of these

Q.10

A ............ is a microprocessor -based computing device ?

a) personal computer
b) mainframe
c) workstation
d) server

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