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HTML

HTML
  • Hyper Text Mark-up Language is abbreviated as HTML.
  • The main purpose of Html is to design web pages.
  • Html provides so many elements such as <p>, <img>, <h1>) to design a web page.
  • Tim Berners-Leeis known as father of Html.

 

Hypertext pages are interconnected by hyperlinks, when clicked on these links it takes you to a new webpage.

Markup language are tag based language; for example gml, sgml, html, xml, etc.

 

Features for HTML

  • Html is a static page and is not case sensitive.
  • Html is simple, easy language and error free language.
  • We can also include audio, video, image on web pages.
  • Html is platform independent as it can run on any platform like Windows, Linux, and Mac.
  • Each and every elements of html should be enclosed within the angular brackets (<>).
  • Html programs are executed by the interpreter of the browser software.
  • Html program save with .htm or .html

                       

Basics of HTML

HTML tags:

  • HTML tags are used to mark-up HTML elements
  • HTML tags are always surrounded by the two angle brackets
  • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>
  • HTML is not case sensitive language so you can write Html tags in lowercase or uppercase letters.

 

Some Html tags are given below:

Syntax:

<p>   Paragraph tag </p>

 

<h2> Heading tag </h2>

 

<b>Bold Tag</b>

<u>Underline Tag</u>

<i>Italic Tag </i>

 

HTML elements:

<b>Enter in Bold text</b>

The HTML element begins with a start tag: <b>

The content of the HTML element is: Enter in bold text

The HTML element ends with an end tag: </b>

Basic HTML Tags: Tags that define headings, paragraphs and line breaks are the most important tags in HTML.

Tag

Description

<html>

Defines an HTML document

<body>

Defines the document's body

<h1> to <h6>

Defines header 1 to header 6

<p>

Defines a paragraph

<br>

Inserts a single line break

<hr>

Defines a horizontal rule

<!-->

Defines a comment

 

Headings: These are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags, where <h1> defines the largest heading while <h6> defines the smallest.

”class 

Paragraphs

  • To load the webpage with information we can create paragraphs.
  • These are defined with the <p> tag.

<p align="left"> This is a paragraph aligned to the left side </p>

<p align="center"> This is another paragraph with center alignment</p>

Note: Each paragraph has to be enclosed within angle bracket, failing to do will become one large paragraph. HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a paragraph.

 

Line Breaks

  • To make the webpage more presentable we need line breaks.
  • The <br> tag is used when you want to start a new line.

<p>This <br> is a para<br> graph with line breaks</p>

The below given lines show the output of the above syntax:

This

is a para

graph with line breaks

The <br> tag has no closing tag.

 

Backgrounds

  • To make the web page more attractive we can set background color or an image.

 

Bgcolor

  • The bgcolor attribute specifies a color to the background.
  • It can be a hexadecimal number, an RGB value, or a color name.

<body bgcolor="#000000">

<body bgcolor="rgb(0,0,0)">

<body bgcolor="black">

The lines that are given above – To set background-color black.

HTML Colors

  • Usually the HTML color values are a combination of red, green, and blue color defined by a hexadecimal notation.
  • This table shown below is the result of combining RGB:

”classHTML Lists

  • HTML provides a simple and elegant way to sort the important information on a webpage.
  •  

    Unordered Lists:

    • An unordered list is a list of items marked with bullets.
    • An unordered list starts with the <ul> tag.
    • Each list item starts with the <li> tag.

    This Code Would Display

    <ul>

     

    <li>Coffee</li>

    ·        ƒ Coffee

    <li>Milk</li>

    ·        ƒ Milk

    </ul>

     

     

    Ordered Lists:

    • An ordered list is also a list of items marked with numbers.
    • An ordered list starts with the <ol> tag.
    • Each list item starts with the <li> tag.

    This Code Would Display

    <ol>

     

    <li>Coffee</li>

    1. Coffee

    <li>Milk</li>

    2. Milk

    </ol>

     

     

    HTML Links – HTML uses the anchor tag to create a link to another document or web page.

    Email Links – To create an email link, you will use mailto: plus your email address.

    <a href="mailto:[email protected]">Email Help Desk</a>

    To add a subject for the email message, you would add ?subject= after the email address.

    For example:         

    <a href=" mailto:[email protected]?subject=Email Assistance">Email Help Desk</a>

    HTML Images:

    • The <img> tag has no closing tag.
    • To display an image on a page, you need to use the src attribute.
    • Src stands for "source".
    • The value of the src attribute is the URL of the image you want to display on your page.

    The syntax of defining an image:

    Output display:

    ”classTables:

    • Tables are defined with the <table> tag.
    • A table is divided into rows (<tr> tag), and each row is divided into data cells (<td> tag).
    • The letters td stands for table data, which is the content of a data cell.
    • A data cell can contain text, images, lists, paragraphs, forms, horizontal rules, tables, etc.

    <table>

    <tr>

    <td>row 1, cell 1</td>

    <td>row 1, cell 2</td>

    </tr>

    <tr>

    <td>row 2, cell 1</td>

    <td>row 2, cell 2</td>

    </tr>

    </table>

     

    Output display:

    row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2

    row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2

     

    Cell Padding and Spacing

    The <table> tag has two attributes known as cellspacing and cellpadding. These properties may be used separately or together.

    • Cellpadding is the pixel space between the cell contents and the cell border.
    • Cellspacing is the space between the cells.

    ”classPractice These Questions

     

    Exercise 1:

     

    Open your text editor and type the following text.

    <html>

    <head>

    <title>Welcome to my Webpage</title>

    </head>

    <body>

    <h1 align="center">My First Webpage</h1>

    <p> I am happy to create my own HTML webpage. This is so easy and interesting</p>

    <p>By learning html, I will be able to create web pages<br></p>

    </body>

    </html>

    Save the page as mypage1.html.

     

    Exercise 2:

    It’s time to create your own page. Use your text editor to create a page which contains the following:

    • the required HTML page codes
    • link to another web page
    • an email link
    • a picture/graphic
    • a list of information

     

    Recap

    Hyper Text Markup Language is abbreviated as HTML, to design web pages.

    Basic HTML

    HTML tags

    • HTML tags are used to mark-up HTML elements.

    HTML elements

    • The HTML element begins with a start tag: <b>

    Headings

    • To set headings for the content on the webpage.

    Paragraphs

    • To load the webpage with information we can create paragraphs.

    Line Breaks

    • To make the webpage more presentable we need line breaks.

    Backgrounds

    • To make the web page more attractive we can set background color or an image.

    Bgcolor

    • The bgcolor attribute specifies a color to the background.

    HTML Colors

    • A combination of red, green, and blue color defined by a hexadecimal notation.

    HTML Lists

    • To sort the important information on a webpage.

    Unordered Lists

    • List of items marked with bullets.

    Ordered Lists

    • List of items marked with numbers.

    HTML Links

    • Anchor tag to create a link to another document or web page.

    Email Links

    • To create an email link

    HTML Images

    • To add an image to the webpage.

    Tables

    • To draw a table in webpage.

    Cell Padding

    • Pixel space between the cell contents and the cell border.

    Cell Spacing

    • The space between the cells.

    Quiz for HTML

    Q.1

    which tag is used to emphasize the text?

    a) <||| ||| empasize ||| |||><||| ||| /empasize ||| |||>
    b) <||| ||| e ||| |||><||| ||| /e ||| |||>
    c) <||| ||| emp ||| |||><||| ||| emp ||| |||>
    d) <||| ||| em ||| |||><||| ||| /em ||| |||>

    Q.2

    ______ element used to override the current text direction?

    a) <||| ||| bod ||| |||><||| ||| /bod ||| |||>
    b) <||| ||| bd ||| |||><||| ||| /bd ||| |||>
    c) <||| ||| bdo ||| |||><||| ||| /bdo ||| |||>
    d) none of the above

    Q.3

    The <||| ||| q ||| |||>…<||| ||| /q ||| |||> element is used to add d__________ within a sentence.

    a) quotations
    b) double quote
    c) strong text
    d) marked text

    Q.4

    <||| ||| meta ||| |||> tags are placed inside _____tag?

    a) <||| ||| body ||| |||>
    b) <||| ||| head ||| |||>
    c) <||| ||| form ||| |||>
    d) <||| ||| div ||| |||>

    Q.5

    ___________ is used for http response message headers?

    a) name
    b) scheme
    c) content
    d) http-equiv

    Q.6

    _____ tag are used to store cookies on client side?

    a) <||| ||| meta ||| |||>
    b) <||| ||| body ||| |||>
    c) <||| ||| title ||| |||>
    d) <||| ||| head ||| |||>

    Q.7

    HTML comments are placed in between _______tags?

    a) <||| ||| !--...-- ||| |||>
    b) <||| ||| !--…--! ||| |||>
    c) <||| ||| --…-- ||| |||>
    d) none of the above

    Q.8

    HTML tables are created using _____ tag?

    a) <||| ||| t ||| |||>
    b) <||| ||| tab ||| |||>
    c) <||| ||| table ||| |||>
    d) <||| ||| tt ||| |||>

    Q.9

    <||| ||| TD ||| |||> … <||| ||| /TD ||| |||> tag is used for _______?

    a) Table heading
    b) Table Records
    c) Table row
    d) none of the above

    Q.10

    <||| ||| SCRIPT ||| |||> … <||| ||| /SCRIPT ||| |||> tag can be placed within ________?

    a) Header
    b) Body
    c) Both a and b
    d) none of the above

    Your Score: 0/10

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