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Networking

Networking
  • With respect to class 8 Networking, to exchange data and perform an action, we have a group of computers and other devices connected together which are known as Network.
  • These devices on the network can be thought of as a node which has a unique address, which is a numeric quantity.

With respect to class 8 Networking, we have two principle kinds of networks:

Wide Area Networks (WANs) and Local Area Networks (LANs)

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Wide Area Networks (WANs) with respect to class 8 Networking

  • This network connects computers to a larger extent
  • It widely covers cities, countries, and continents.
  • Packet switching technology is used here.

Local Area Networks (LANs) with respect to class 8 Networking

  • This network connects computers to a smaller extent
  • It covers networks with a building or closely related buildings.
  • Examples of LANs are - Ethernet, Token Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data Interconnect (FDDI).

Ethernet LANs – Communication-based on a bus topology.
Token ring LANs – Communication-based on the ring topology

FDDI LANs – Communication uses optical fiber and is based on the token ring mechanism where two rings flow in the opposite directions.

OSI Layers

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Physical layer with respect to class 8 computer lessons –

  • This layer uses electronic circuits for data transmission.
  • The main role of this layer is to ensure that the data is shared in a safe and efficient way.

Data link layer with respect to class 8 computer lessons –

  • The main purpose is to interpret the information in the physical layer.
  • Any error is detected here in this layer.
  • It is responsible for data encapsulation, where the data is encapsulated in the form of packets.

Network layer with respect to class 8 computer lessons –

  • Network layer helps to transfer the packets from a source A to a destination B.
  • The main role is to route the information.

Transport layer with respect to class 8 computer lessons –

  • It is useful to delivery the packets from a source A to a destination B.
  • Also, this ensures an end to end error control.

Session layer with respect to class 8 computer lessons –

  • It is responsible for the management of network access.
  • Network access includes authentication, permissions and session restoration.

Presentation layer with respect to class 8 computer lessons –

  • It determines the format of the data transmitted to applications.
  • It performs tasks such as data compressing/decompressing, encrypting etc.
  • It codes into 0s and 1s.

Application layer with respect to class 8 computer lessons –

  • This layer contains the applications which are used by the end-user.
  • Example – The paint program that we use on our computer.

 

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TCP/IP Model with respect to class 8 Networking

  • Protocols define the set of rules that govern the communications between two computers connected on to a network.
  • It addresses and routes the messages, detects the error and recovers them, sequence and flow controls etc.
  • TCP - Transmission Control Protocol
  • IP - Internet Protocol

The TCP/IP Model consists of 4 layers they are:

  • Application layer
  • Transport layer
  • Internet layer
  • Network layer

Network layer with respect to class 8 Networking -

  • In the OSI model, it performs the same function as the physical, the data link and network layers.
  • The IP addresses and network physical addresses are mapped here.
  • Encapsulation of IP datagrams.

Internet layer with respect to class 8 Networking -

  • Internet layer helps in providing the frame for transmitting data.
  • These data are transmitted from place A to place B.
  • Data transmission is based on the Internet Protocol (IP).
  • It usually lies at the heart of TCP/IP.

Transport layer with respect to class 8 Networking -

  • Works based on two main protocols which are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
  • TCP - It guarantees safe delivery, error detection and safe data transmission. It assures that data is received in the correct order with help of IP.
  • UDP - These are useful for sending small size data.

Application layer with respect to class 8 Networking -

  • Performs the same function as an application, presentation, and session layers of the OSI layers.
  • Protocols involved in this layer: HTTP, FTP, SMTP, etc.
  • HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol defines the format on how a message is transmitted, and the action for various commands on a web server/browser.
  • FTP – When two machines are connected to the internet, file transfer protocol allows transferring collection of files.
  • SMTP – Simple Network Management Protocol takes care of the management of the network.

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Internet Protocol (IP) with respect to class 8 Networking

The main functions of Internet protocol are

→ Firstly, the information is decomposed into packets of standardized size and then reassembled at the destination.

→ It also routes a packet through networks, from the source to the destination which is identified by its IP address.

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Recap with respect to class 8 Networking 

Networking

With respect to class 8 computer lessons, a network can be simply defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in order to exchange data.

There are two principal kinds of networks

Wide Area Networks (WANs) and Local Area Networks (LANs)

  • Ethernet, Token Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data Interconnect (FDDI).

OSI Layers

Functions of data transmission through OSI layers

TCP/IP Model

Consists of only 4 layers they are:

  • Application layer
  • Transport layer
  • Internet layer
  • Network layer

Quiz for Networking

Q.1

For large networks, you need a very ____________ topology that can work continuously?

a) Robust
b) Dependent
c) Reliable
d) Independent

Q.2

The NWLink protocol is faster than ____________?

a) SMPT
b) TCP/IP
c) ICMP
d) UDP

Q.3

Apple Inc is an American multinational corporation that was developed ____________?

a) Google
b) IBM
c) Mac Operating System
d) Microsoft

Q.4

Which of the following Topology provides way for connecting computer to each other?

a) Bus Topology
b) Network Topology
c) Ring Topology
d) Mesh Topology

Q.5

A network spanning the physical area as a city is called as ____________?

a) MAN
b) LAN
c) PAN
d) WAN

Q.6

Which of the following is not a type of networking topology?

a) Mesh
b) Ring
c) OSI
d) Bus

Q.7

Another term for Ethernet Network is?

a) Connector
b) Wired Network
c) Wireless Network
d) Extension

Q.8

Which of the following connects a LAN to a WAN?

a) NIC
b) Repeater
c) Router
d) Hotspot

Q.9

Which of the following is not a type of wireless security protocol?

a) Media Access Control
b) Wired Equivalent Privacy
c) Robust Secure Network
d) Wi-Fi Protected Access

Q.10

Which of the following is necessary to connect two computers?

a) Intranet
b) Wireless Internet
c) Category 5 Cable
d) Network Interface Card

Your Score: 0/10

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