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Evolution of computers

Evolution of computers

Characteristics of Computer

 Three principles characteristic of a computer are:

  • They respond in a well-defined manner to a specific set of instructions.
  • Even a list of pre-recorded instructions can be executed.
  • Storage and retrieval of large amounts of data is possible.

 

Earliest Computer

 

  • Earlier all calculations were computed by humans and their job title were computers.
  • They were engaged in the calculation of a mathematical expression.
  • Human computers requires years of training in mathematics and are expensive.
  • In the year 1613 the word "computer" was recorded which meant the person who carried out calculations, or computations.
  • Until the middle of the 20th century, the word continued to be used in that sense.

 

 

Tally Sticks

  • A tally stick was an ancient memory aid device.
  • It is used to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages.

  class 7 evolution of computers

Abacus 

  • This was initially invented in Babylonia in 2400 B.C, to perform basic arithmetic operations.
  • Abacus was first used in China in around 500 B.C.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

 

Napier’s Bones

  • Was invented by John Napier in the year 1614.
  • It allows the operator to multiply, divide, calculate square and cube roots.

 

  • Operations are performed by moving the rods around and placing them in specially constructed boards.

 

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

Slide Rule

  • This is invented by William Oughtred in the year 1622.
  • This slide rule was created based on Napier's ideas about logarithms.
  • They help to perform multiplication, division, roots, logarithms and trigonometry.
  • One main drawback is that they are not normally used for addition or subtraction.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

 

Pascaline

  • This is invented by Blaise Pascal in the year 1642.
  • It was expensive and it is also restricted to addition and subtraction.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

 

Stepped Reckoner

  • This is invented by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the year 1672 which can automatically add, subtract, multiply and divide.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

Jacquard Loom

  • The Jacquard loom was invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard in the year 1881 which are created by an automatic loom controlled by punched cards.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

 

 

Arithmometer

  • A mechanical calculator invented by Thomas de Colmar in the year 1820 which could perform the four basic mathematic functions.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

 

Difference Engine and Analytical Engine

 

  • This was invented by Charles Babbage in the year 1822 and 1834.
  • It is the first mechanical computer, designed to tabulate polynomial functions.

 

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

 

Scheutzian Calculation Engine

  • This was invented by Per Georg Scheutz in the year 1843.
  • This is the first printing calculator designed based on Charles Babbage's difference engine.

  class 7 evolution of computers


Tabulating Machine

  • This machine was invented by Herman Hollerith in the year 1890.
  • This is to help in summarizing information and accounting.

 

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

Havard Mark 1

  • This is invented by Howard H. Aikenin in the year 1943, which is also known as IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC).

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

Z1

  • This is the first programmable computer invented by Konrad Zusein Germany from 1936 to 1938.
  • Input is via punch tape inserted into a punch tape reader and all output was generated through punch tape.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

Atanasoff-Berry Computer(ABC)

  • It was the first electronic digital computing device which was invented by Professor John Atanasoff.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

ENIAC

  • It was the first electronic general-purpose computer where ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer.
  • This was developed by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchl in the year 1946.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

UNIVAC 1

  • This was designed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly where UNIVAC I(UNIVersal Automatic Computer 1) was the first commercial computer.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)

  • This is the first stored program developed by Von Neumann in the year 1952 which has memory to hold both a stored program as well as data.

  class 7 evolution of computers

The First Portable Computer

  • Osborne 1 is the first portable computer developed in the year 1981 by the Osborne Computer Corporation.

  class 7 evolution of computers

 

Recap

Characteristics of Computer

Three principles characteristic of computer

Earliest Computer

Tally Sticks - It is used to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages.

Abacus - To perform mathematical calculations, they used abacus which is a mechanical device used to aid an individual.

Napier’s Bones - Operations are performed by moving the rods around and placing them in specially constructed boards.

Slide Rule - They help to perform multiplication, division, roots, logarithms and trigonometry.

Pascaline - It is restricted to addition and subtraction.

Stepped Reckoner - It which can automatically add, subtract, multiply and divide.

Jacquard Loom - Created by an automatic loom controlled by punched cards.

Arithmometer - It could perform the four basic mathematic functions.

Difference Engine and Analytical Engine

Scheutzian Calculation Engine - This is the first printing calculator.

Tabulating Machine - This is to help on summarizing information and accounting.

Havard Mark 1 - Which is known as IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC).

Z1 - input is via punch tape into inserted into a punch tape reader and all output was generated through punch tape.

 

Atanasoff-berry computer(abc) - it was the first electronic digital computing device.

Eniac - it was the first electronic general-purpose computer.

Univac 1 - it was the first commercial computer.

Edvac - it has memory to hold both a stored program as well as data.

The first portable computer - osborne 1

Quiz for Evolution of computers

Q.1

What is an IC?

a) Intelligent Computer
b) Integrated Computer
c) Intelligent Circuit
d) Integrated Circuit

Q.2

Which of the following option is correct?

1) IC were used in 2nd generation computers.

2) AI was available in Ist generation computers.

a)

Both 1 and 2 are correct

b)

Both are incorrect

c)

1 is correct and 2 is incorrect

d)

1 is incorrect and 2 is correct

Q.3

Expand IC

a) Integrated Circuit
b) Integral Circuit
c) Initial Circuit
d) Implemented Circuit

Q.4

What is the full form of VLSI?

a)

Very large scale integration

b)

Very large scale integrated 

c)

Versatile large scale integration

d)

None of these

Q.5

What is the use of VLSIC?

a)

To move the screen

b)

To move the pointer

c)

To move the page

d)

none of the above

Q.6

Expand VLSIC:

a)

Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit

b)

Very Light Scale Integrated Circuit

c)

Very Large Scale Initiation Circuit

d)

Very Level Scale Integrated Circuit

Q.7

The period of 3rd Generation computers started in ______.

a)

1979

b)

1949

c)

1965

d)

1900

Q.8

Identify the image

a) EDVAC
b) EDSAC
c) Mark I
d) none of the above

Q.9

Identify the object in the image

a) IC
b) KC
c) EDVAC
d) Vacuum tubes

Q.10

What is MIP?

a)

Microphone

b)

Microprocessor

c)

Micro paper

d)

Microspore

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